COS programs on all topics are grounded in published research, our own data results and qualitative feedback from our participants. We seek to ensure our programs support your efforts to reduce risk and increase safety. We review your institution’s mission, survey data, existing curricula to best craft a program to match your goals. COS programs wrap themselves around the audience, rather than forcing the audience to wrap around the program.
We believe in personal storytelling blended with brain science and research.
We utilize bystander intervention research from David Lisak and other highly regarded researchers. We integrate risk factors for perpetration and victimization from research by Rapaport & Burkhart, Foubert, and Koss and gender differences in perceptions of educational approaches from Kelly & Torres, Kilmartin and Katz. We take note of experiences of victimization among various races and religious groups from Kalof & Wade and others, as well as numerous other facets of the experience of, perceptions of, and risk factor for a wide array of demographic variables.
Below is a sample of research informing our programming on healthy relationships, consent, sexual misconduct, gender, harassment and sexual assault.
“When I first learned that we were going to have a school assembly on “date rape” i shrugged it off, thinking it would be some old woman talking about how it happens and how to avoid it. I didn’t want to go, because i thought it would be boring. However i was drastically wrong. Your talk really impacted me, as well as my peers. I suppose could be considered “popular” and have been to my fair share of parties. I have never known of anyone being raped at these parties, but i know for a fact that guys, including myself, don’t always understand the word “no”. I guess the “no” is easier to ignore, I’m not sure, but it hasn’t always stopped me. I have never raped anyone, or sexually assaulted a girl, or girlfriend. However, your talk made me think, and maybe i did go a little too far on a few occasions. During your talk u said u hoped to impact, just 1 guy in the room. Well, you exceeded that by leaps and bounds. Speaking for myself, i know that I’m going to change, and stop when someone says stop. Already in school, if someone says rape, it is quickly followed by a “hey, that’s not funny.” It is no longer a word we use casually as a joke in conversations. Thank you so very much for your honesty, and impact you have had on me, and Im sure thousands of others.”
Social Science Research
Angelone, D. J., Mitchell, D., & Lucenta, L. (2012). Predicting perceptions of date rape: an examination of perpetrator motivation, relationship length, and gender role beliefs. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(13), 2582-2602.
Koss, M.P., Leonard, K.E., Beezley, D.A., Oros, C.J. (1985). Nonstranger sexual aggression: a discriminant analysis of the psychological characteristics of undetected offenders. Sex Roles, 12, 9-10.
Lisak, D. & Miller, P. M. (2002). Repeat rape and multiple offending among undetected rapists. Violence and Victims, 17(1), 73-84.
Lisak, D., Roth, S. (1988). Motivational factors in nonincarcerated sexually aggressive men. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(5), 795-802.
Rapaport, K. & Burkhart, B. R. (1984). Personality and attitudinal characteristics of sexually coercive college males. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2(2), 216-221.
Tatum, J. L. & Foubert, J. D. (2009). Rape myth acceptance, hypermasculinity, and SAT scores as correlates of moral development: understanding sexually aggressive attitudes in first-year college men. Journal of College Student Development, 50(2), 195-209.
Male vs. Female and Gender Issues
Berkowitz, A.D. (2002) Fostering men’s responsibility for preventing sexual assault. In P.A. Schewe (Ed), Preventing violence in relationships: Interventions across the life span, 3rd Edition(pp. 163-196). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Black, C. A., & DeBlassie, R. R. (1993). Sexual abuse in male children and adolescents:iIndicators, effects, and treatments. Adolescence, 28, 123-133.
Collings, S. J. (1995). The long-term effects of contact and noncontact forms of child sexual abuse in a sample of university men. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 1-6.
Darves-Bornoz, J. M., Choquet, M., Ledoux, S., & Manfredi, R. (1998). Gender differences in symptoms of adolescents reporting sexual assault. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33, 111-117.
Garnefski, N., & Diekstra, R. F. W. (1997). Child sexual abuse and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence: gender differences. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 323-329.
Gordon, M. (1990). Males and females as victims of childhood sexual abuse: an examination of the gender effect. Journal of Family Violence, 5, 321-332.
Katz, J. (1995). Reconstructing masculinity in the locker room: mentors in violence prevention. Harvard Educational Review, 65, 163-174.
Kelly, B. T., & Torres, A. (2006). Campus safety: perceptions and experiences of women students. Journal of College Student Development, 47(1), 20-36.
Katz, J. (1994, 2000). Mentors in Violence Prevention Playbook.
Kilmartin, C., & Berkowitz, A. (2005). Sexual assault in context: teaching college men about gender. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Eribaum Associates Publishers.
Lisak, D., Hopper, J., & Song, P. (1996). Factors in the cycle of violence: gender rigidity and emotional constriction. Journal of Traumatic Stress,9(4), 721-743.
Lisak, D., & Miller, P. M. (2002). Repeat rape and multiple offending among undetected rapists. Violence and Victims, 17(1), 73-84.
McCaughey, M. (1997). Real Knockouts: The Physical Feminism of Self Defense. New York: New York University Press.
Monk-Turner, E., & Light, D. (2010). Male sexual assault and rape: who seeks counseling? Sex Abuse, 22(3), 255-265.
Pino, N. W., & Meier, R. F. (1999). Gender differences in rape reporting. Sex Roles, 40(11-12), 979-990.
Carroll, M. H., & Diane, C. M. (2006). Men’s acquaintance rape scripts: a comparison between a regional university and a military academy. Sex Roles, 55(7-8), 469-480.
McWhorter, Stander, & Merril (2009). Reports of rape perpetration by newly enlisted male Navy personnel. Violence and Victims, 24(2), 2009.
Murdoch, M., Polusny, M. A., Hodges, J., & Cowper, D. (2006). The association between in-service sexual harassment and post-traumatic stress disorder among Department of Veterans Affairs disability applicants. Military Medicine, 171(2), 166-173.
Murdoch, M., Polusny, M. A., Hodges, J., & O’Brien, N. (2004). Prevalence of In-Service and Post-Service Sexual Assault among Combat and Noncombat Veterans Applying for Department of Veterans Affairs Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Disability Benefits. Military Medicine, 169(5), 392-395.
Valente, S. & Wright, C. (2007). Military sexual trauma: violence and sexual abuse. Military Medicine, 172(3), 259-265.
Historically Black Colleges and/or Black Students
Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241-1299.
Daniels, D. M. & Sandy, C. (2000). Souls of my sisters: black women break their silence, tell their stories and heal their spirits. New York, NY: Kensington Books
Davis, A. Y. (1982). Women, race, and class. Vintage Press.
Foubert, J. D. & Cremedy, B. J. (2007). Reactions of men of color to a commonly used rape prevention program: attitude and predicted behavior changes. Sex Roles, 57(1-2), 137-144.
Lewis, T. F., Likis-Werle, E., & Fulton, C. L. (2012). Modeling alcohol use intensity among students at a historically black university: the role of social norms, perceptions for risk, and selected demographic variables. Journal of Black Psychology, 38(3), 368-390.
Kalof, L. & Wade, B. H. (1995). Sexual attitudes and experiences with sexual coercion: exploring the influence of race and gender. Journal of Black Psychology, 21(3), 224-238.
Krebs, C. P., Barrick, K., Lindquiest, C., Crosby, C. M. Boyd, C. & Bogan Y (2011). The sexual assault of undergraduate women at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(18), 3640-3666.
Krebs, C. P., Lindquist, C. H., & Barrick, K. (2011). The historically black college and campus sexual assault (HBSU-CSA) study. Unpublished raw data.
Morgan, J. (1999). When chickenheads come home to roost: a hip-hop feminist breaks it down. New York, NY: Touchstone.
Robinson, L. (2002). I will survive: the African American guide to healing from sexual assault and abuse. New York, NY: Seal Press.
Taylor, M. J., Wamser, R. A., Welch, D. Z., & Nanney, J. T. (2012). Multidimensional self-esteem as a mediator of the relationship between sports participation and victimization: a study of African American girls. Victims and Violence, 27(3), 434-452.
West, C. (2006). Sexual violence in the lives of African American women: risk, response, and resilience. National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Wome (pp.1-10), www.vawnet.org.
West, T. (1999). Wounds of the spirit: black women, violence, and resistance ethics. New York: New York University Press.
White, E. (1985). Chain, chain, change: for black women dealing with physical and emotional abuse. New York, NY: Seal Press. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/233614.pdf
High School Student Populations
Anderson, V. N., Simpson-Taylor, D., & Herrmann, D. J. (2004). Gender, age, and rape-supportive rules. Sex Roles, 50(1-2), 77-90.
Blumberg, M. L., & Lester, D. (1991). High school and college students’ attitudes toward rape. Adolescence, 26(103), 727-729.
Borman-Fulks, J. J., Ruggiero, K. J., Hanson, R. F., Smith, D. W., Resnick, H. S., Kilpatrick, D. G., & Saunders, B. E. (2007). Sexual assault disclosure in relation to adolescent mental health: results from the National Survey of Adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(2), 260-266.
Canterbury, R. J., Grossman, S. J., & Lloyd, E. (1993). Drinking behaviors and lifetime incidents of date rape among high school graduates upon entering college. College Student Journal, 27(1), 75-84.
Dembo, R., Williams, L., Wothke, K., & Schmeidler, J. (1992). The role of family factors, physical abuse, and sexual victimization experiences in high risk youths’ alcohol and other drug use and delinquency: a longitudinal model. Violence and Victims, 7(3), 245-266.
Erickson, P. I., & Rapkin, A. J. (1991). Unwanted sexual experiences among middle and high school youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12, 319-325.
McCauley, J. L., Conoscenti, L. M., Ruggiero, K. J., Resnick, H. S., Saunders, B. E., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2009). Prevalence and correlates of drug/alcohol-facilitated and incapacitated sexual assault in a nationally representative sample of adolescent girls. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38(2), 295-300.
Young, A. M., Grey, M., & Boyd, C. J. (2009). Adolescents’ experiences of sexual assault by peers: prevalence and nature of victimization occurring within and outside of school. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(8), 1072-1083.
Bersamin, M. M., Paschall, M. J., Saltz, R. F., & Zamboanga, B. L. (2012). Young adults and casual sex: the relevance of college drinking settings. Journal of Sex Research, 49(2-3), 274-281.
Bleecker, E. T., & Murnen, S. K. (2005). Fraternity membership, the display of degrading sexual images of women, and rape myth acceptance. Sex Roles, 53(7-8), 487-493.
Copenhaver, S. & Grauerholz, E. (1991). Sexual victimization among sorority women: exploring the link between sexual violence and institutional practices. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 24(1-2), 31-41.
Foubert, J. D., Garner, D. N., & Thaxter, P. J. (2006). An exploration of fraternity culture: implications for programs to address alcohol-related sexual assault. College Student Journal, 40(2), 361-373.
Frintner,M. P., & Rubinson, L. (1993). Acquaintance rape: The influence of alcohol, fraternity membership, and sports team membership. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 19(4), 272-284.
Foubert, J. D, & Newberry, J. T. (2006). Effects of two versions of an empathy-based rape prevention program on fraternity men’s survivor empathy, attitudes, and behavioral intent to commit rape or sexual assault. Journal of College Student Development, 47(2), 133-148.
Kalof, L. (1993). Rape supportive attitudes and sexual victimization experiences of sorority and non-sorority women. Sex Roles, 29(11-12), 767–780.
Nurius, P. S. (1996). Expectations regarding acquaintance sexual aggression among sorority and fraternity members. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 35(7/8), 427-444.
Berkel, L. A., Vandiver, B. J., & Bahner, A. D. (2004). Gender role attitudes, religion, and spirituality as predictors of domestic violence attitudes in white college students. Journal of College Student Development, 45(2), 119-133.
Freni, D. (2007, November 8). Jews who abuse: dating violence on campus. Hillel Campus Report. Retrieved from http://www.hillel.org/about/news/2007/nov/datingabuse_2007nov08.htm.
Gerber, M. M., Boals, A., & Schuettler, D. (2011). The unique contributions of positive and negative religious coping to posttraumatic growth and PTSD. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 3(4), 298-307.
Hardy, S. A., Walker, L. J., Rackham, D. D, & Olsen, J. A. (2012). Religiosity and adolescent empathy and aggression: the mediating role of moral identity. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 4(3), 237-248.
Lewis, N. B., & Fortune, M. (1999). Remembering conquest feminist/womanist perspectives on religion, colonization, and sexual violence. London: Haworth Press.
Schultz, J. M., Tallman, B. A., & Altmaier, E. M. (2010). Pathways to posttraumatic growth: the contributions of forgiveness and importance of religion and spirituality. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 2(2), 104-114.
Somanader, T. (2012, January 18). Muslim college student reports sexual harassment, gets reported to FBI for terrorism and expelled. Think Progress. Retrieved from http://thinkprogress.org/security/2012/01/18/406061/connecticut-muslim-student-reports-sexual-harassment-gets-reported-to-fbi-for-terrorism-and-expelled-from-university/?mobile=nc
Stotelo, N. (2011). Sexual assault and Catholic schools and colleges [blog post]. Retrieved from http://ncronline.org/blogs/young-voices/sexual-assault-catholic-colleges-and-universities.
Bendict, J. & Klein, A. (1997). Arrest and conviction rates for athletes accused of sexual assault. Sociology of Sport Journal, 14, 86-94.
Forbes, G.B., Adams-Curtis, L.E., Pakalka, A.H., & White, K.B. (2006). Dating aggression, sexual coercion, and aggression-supporting attitudes among college men as a function of participation in aggressive high school sports. Violence Against Women, 12(5), 441–455.
Humphrey, S. E. & Kahn, A. S. (2000). Fraternities, athletic teams, and rape: importance of identification with a risky group. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15(12), 1313-1322.
McMahon, S. & Farmer, G. L. (2009). The bystander approach: strengths-based sexual assault prevention with at-risk groups. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(8), 1042-1065.
Smith, D. & Stewart, S. (2003). Sexual aggression and sports participation. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(4), 384-395.
Brand, P. A., & Kidd, A. H. (1986). Frequency of physical aggression in heterosexual and female homosexual dyads. Psychological Reports, 59(3), 1307-1313.
Courvant, D., & Cook-Daniels, L., (1998). Transgender and intersex survivors of domestic violence: Defining terms, barriers and responsibilities. In National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Conference Manual, POB 18749 Denver, CO 80218, 303-839-1852.
Davies, M., Rogers, P., & Bates, J. (2008). Blame toward male rape victims in a hypothetical sexual assault as a function of victim sexuality and degree of resistance. Journal of Homosexuality, 55(3), 533-544.
Duncan, D. F. (1990). Prevalence of sexual assault victimization among heterosexual and gay/lesbian university students. Psychological Reports, 66(1), 65-66.
Eyler, A.E., & Witten, T.M. (1999). Violence within and against the transgender community: Preliminary survey results. Technical Report: International Longitudinal Transsexual and Transgender Aging Research Project. 1-12. 12846 Maple Park Drive, San Antonio, TX, 78249, 1.210.691.3351. Retreieved from http://www.int-trans.org.
Gartner, R. B. (2000). Sexual victimization of boys by men: meanings and consequences. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy, 3(2), 1-33.
Gundlach, R. (1977). Sexual molestation and rape reported by homosexual and heterosexual women. Journal of Homosexuality, 2(4), 367-384.
Heidt, J.M., Marx, B.P., & Gold, S.D. (2005). Sexual revictimization among sexual minorities: a preliminary study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(5), 533-540.
Lehavot, K., Yamile, M., & Simoni, J. M. (2012). Childhood trauma, adult sexual assault, and adult gender expression among lesbian and bisexual women. Sex Roles, 67(5-6), 272-284.
Lie, G., Schilit, R., Bush, J., Montagne, M., & Reyes, L. (1991). Lesbians in currently aggressive relationships: how frequently do they report aggressive past relationships? Violence and Victims, 6(2), 121-135.
Loulan, J. (1988). Research on the sex practices of 1566 lesbians and the clinical applications. Women & Therapy, 7(23), 221-234.
National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (1998-2005) Rape & Sexual Assault [information on a page]. Retrieved from http://www.ncavp.org/issues/SexualAssault.aspx
Renzetti, C.M. (1992). Violent betrayal: partner abuse in lesbian relationships. Newbury Park: Sage.
Rothman, E. F., Exner, D., & Baughman, A. L. (2011). The prevalence of sexual assault against people who identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual in the US: a systematic review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 12(2), 55-66.
Saltzman, L. E., Fanslow, J. L., McMahon, P. M., & Shelley, G. A. (1999). Intimate Partner Violence Surveillance: Uniform definitions and recommended data elements, version 1.0. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.
Sloan, L., & Edmond, T. (1996). Shifting the focus: recognizing the needs of lesbian and gay survivors of sexual violence. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 5(4), 33- 52.
Stoddard, J. P., Dibble, S. L., & Fineman, N. (2009). Sexual and physical abuse: a comparison between lesbians and their heterosexual sisters. Journal of Homosexuality, 56(4), 407-420.
Waldner-Haugrud, L. K., & Gratch, L. V. (1997). Sexual coercion in gay/lesbian relationships: descriptives and gender differences. Violence and Victims, 12(1), 87- 98.
Waterman, C. K., Dawson, L. J., & Bologna, M. J. (1989). Sexual coercion in gay male and lesbian relationships: predictors and implications for support services. The Journal of Sex Research, 26(1), 118-124.
White, B. H. & Robinson, S. E. (2002). Effects of victim sex and sexual orientation on perceptions of rape. Sex Roles, 46(5-6), 191-200.
____. Preventing Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence: Program Activities Guide. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/pub/ipv_sv_guide.html
____. (2007) Preventing Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Violence in Racial/Ethnic Minority Communities: CDC’s Demonstration Projects. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/PreventingIntimatePartnerViolence.htm
Banyard, V. (n.d.). Bystander behavior: measurment and correlates of pro-social bystander behavior: the case of interpersonal violence. University of New Hampshire, unpublished study.
Banyard, V. L. (2008). Measurement and correlates of prosocial bystander behavior: the case of interpersonal violence. Violence and Victims, 23(1), 83-97.
Banyard, V. L., & Moynihan, M. M. (2011). Variation in bystander behavior related to sexual and intimate partner violence prevention: correlates in a sample of college students. Psychology of Violence, 1(4), 287-301.
Baynard, V. L., Moynihan, M. M., & Crossman, M. T. (2009). Reducting sexual violence on campus: the role of student leaders as empowered bystanders. Journal of College Student Development, 50(4), 446-457.
Banyard, V. L., Moynihan, M. M., & Plante, E. G. (2007). Sexual violence prevention through bystander education: an experimental evaluation. Journal of Community Psychology, 35(4), 463-481.
Banyard, V. L., Plante, E., & Moynihan, M. M. (2004). Bystander education: bringing a broader community perspective to sexual violence prevention. Journal of Community Psychology, 32(1), 61-79.
Banyard, V. L., Plante, E. G., & Moynihan, M. M. (2005). Rape prevention through bystander education: bringing a broader community perspective to sexual violence prevention. Unpublished report. Retrieved from
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). The Social-Ecological Model: A Framework for Prevention.
Hart, T. C. & Miethe, T. D. (2008). Exploring bystander presence and intervention in nonfatal violent victimization: when does helping really help? Violence and Victims, 23(5), 637-651.
McMahon, S., Postmus, J. L., & Koenick, R. A. (2011). Conceptualizing the engaging bystander approach to sexual violence prevention on college campuses. Journal of College Student Development, 52(1), 115-130.
Moynihan, M. M., Banyard, V. L., Arnold, J. S., Eckstein, R. P., & Stapleton, J. G. (2010). Engaging intercollegiate athletes in preventing and intervening in sexual and intimate partner violence. Journal of American College Health, 59(3), 197-204.
Moynihan, M. M., Potter, S. J., Banyard, V. L., Stapleton, J. G., & Mayhew, M. R. (2010). An example community perspective on sexual violence prevention: enhancing safety nets and preventing victimization by empowering a college community of bystanders. In M. Paludi and F. L. Denmark (Eds.), Victims of Sexual Assault and Abuse: Resources and Responses for Individuals and Families, Volume 2 (pp. 187-210). New York: Praeger.
Moynihan, M. M. & Banyard, V. L. (2009). Improving individuals’ change in response to sexual violence: reducing backlash using a bystander approach. Sexual Assault Report. Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.
Moynihan, M. M., Banyard, V. L., Arnold, J. S., Eckstein, R. P., & Stapleton, J. G. (2011). Sisterhood may be powerful in for reducing sexual and intimate partner violence: an evaluation of the Bringing in the Bystander in-person program with sorority members. Violence Against Women, 17(6), 703-719.
Prevention Update: Bystander Intervention. Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. July 2012.
Potter, S. J., & Moynihan, M. M. (2011). Bringing in the Bystander in-person prevention program to a US military installation: results from a pilot study. Military Medicine, 176(8), 870-875.
Barone, R. P., Wolgemuth, J. R., & Linder, C. (2007). Preventing sexual assault through engaging college men. Journal of College Student Development, 48(5), 585-594.
Bordon, L. A., Karr, S. K., & Caldwell-Colbert, A. T. (1988). Effects of a university rape prevention program on attitudes and empathy toward rape. Journal of College Student Development, 29(2), 132-138.
Davis, R., Parks, L. F., & Cohen, L. (2006). Sexual violence and the spectrum of prevention: towards a community solution. National Sexual Violence Resource Center.
Earle, J. P. (1996). Acquaintance rape workshops: their effectiveness in changing the attitudes of first year college men. NASPA Journal, 34(1), 2-18.
Foubert, J., & Newberry, J. T. (2006). Effects of two versions of an empathy-based rape prevention program on fraternity men’s survivor empathy, attitudes, and behavioral intent to commit rape or sexual assault. Journal of College Student Development, 47(2), 133-148.
Foubert, J. D., Tatum, J. L., & Godin, E. E. (2010). First-year male students’ perceptions of a rape prevention program 7 months after their participation: attitude and behavior changes. Journal of College Student Development, 51(6), 707-715.
Harrison, P. J., Downes, J., & Williams, M. D. (1991). Date and acquaintance rape: Perceptions and attitude change strategies. Journal of College Student Development, 32(2), 131-139.
Holcomb, D. R., & Schaefer, R. W. (1995). Enhancing dating attitudes through peer education as a date rape prevention strategy. The Peer Facilitator Quarterly, 12(4), 16-20.
Lee, L. A. (1987). Rape prevention: experimental training for men. Journal of Counseling and Development, 66(2), 100-101.
Lonsway, Banyard, Berkowitz, Gidycz, Katz, Koss, Schewe, Ullman (2009). Rape prevention and risk reduction: review of the research literature for practictioners. Vaw Net.
National Sexual Violence Resource Center Prevention Assessment, Year 2 Report: Innovations in Prevention, (2012, January 9).
Rothman, E., & Silverman, J. (2007). The effect of a college sexual assault prevention program on first-year students’ victimization rates. Journal of American College Health, 55(5), 283-290.
Schaeffer, A. M., & Nelson, E. S. (1993). Rape-supportive attitudes: effects of on-campus residence and education. Journal of College Student Development, 34(3), 175-179.
Shifting the Paradigm: Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence (2008). American College Health Association Toolkit. Retrieved from http://www.acha.org/SexualViolence/docs/ACHA_PSV_toolkit.pdf
Stein, J. L. (2007). Peer educators and close friends as predictors of male college students’ willingness to prevent rape. Journal of College Student Development, 48(1), 75-89.
Banyard, V. L., Eckstein, R., & Moynihan, M. M. (2010). Sexual violence prevention: the role of stages of change. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(1), 111-135.
Rapaport, K., & Burkhart, B. R. (1984). Personality and attitudinal characteristics of coercive college males. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2(2), 216-221.
Asian American Women
Agtuca, J. R. (1994). A community secret: for the Filipina in an abusive relationship. Seattle, WA: Seal Press.
Devdas, N. R. and Rubin, L.J. (2007). Rape myth acceptance among first and second generation South Asian American women. Sex Roles, 56(9-10), 701-705.
Kalof, L. (2000). Ethnic difference in female victimization. Sexuality and Culture, 4, 75-97.
Koss, M.P., Gidycz, C.A., & Wisniekwski, N. (1987). The scope of rape: Incidence and prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a national sampe of higher education students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(2), 162-170.
Lee, J., Pomeroy, E.C., & Yoo, S-K. (2005). Attitudes toward rape: a comparison between Asian and Caucasian college students. Violence Against Women, 11(2), 177-196.
Lee, M. Y., & Law, P.F. M. (2001). Perception of sexual violence against women in Asian American communities. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work: Innovation in Theory, Research, & Practice, 10(2), 1-25.
Sable, M.R., Danis, F., Mauzy, D.L., & Gallagher, S.K. (2006). Barriers to reporting sexual assault for women and men: perspectives of college students. Journal of American College Health, 55(3), 157-162.
Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (1998). Prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey (No. NCJ No. 172837). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Cuevas, C.A., & Sabina, C. (2010). Final report: Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) Study. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
Cuevas, C. A., Sabina, C., & Picard, E. (2010). Interpersonal victimization patterns and psychopathology among Latino women: results from the SALAS study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 2(4), 296-306.
Project Survive. City College of San Francisco. Retrieved from http://www.ccsf.edu/Departments/Women_Studies/Project_SURVIVE/index.html
Sexual Violence Awareness Fact Sheet: Latinos/Hispanics. Richmond, VA: Virginia Sexual and Domestic Violence Action Alliance. Retrieved from http://www.vsdvalliance.org/secPublications/svfshl.pdf
Native American Women
Native American Women and Violence (2011). National Now Times. Retrieved from http://www.now.org/nnt/spring-2001/nativeamerican.html.
Williams, T. (2012, May 22). For Native American Women, Scourge of Rape, Rare Justice. The New York Times.
Lloyd, S., & Taluc, N. (1999). The effects of male violence on female employment. Violence Against Women, 5(4), 370-92.
Schecter, Susan. (2000, December). Expanding solutions for domestic violence & poverty: what battered women with abused children need from their advocates. National Resource Center on Domestic Violence.
Straus, M. A., & Gelles, R. J. (Eds.). (1990). Physical violence in American families. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
_____(1994). On Record: Facts about Mental Health & Physical and Sexual Abuse. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Mental Health Services.
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